## greenhouse gas emissions by country percentage

Overall, since 1990, the heating influence of human-produced greenhouse gases has increased by 1.1 Watts per square meter. IPCC (2014). It is nothing new that estimates of food emissions span a wide spectrum. A greenhouse gas (GHG) is a gas that traps heat in the atmosphere. Canada emitted 571 million tons of carbon dioxide in 2019. Greenhouse gases emissions in the EU and in the world A greenhouse gas (GHG or GhG) is a gas that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range, causing the greenhouse effect. Globally it accounts for approximately 16 percent of human-generated greenhouse gas emissions. Monogastric animals have a higher feed-conversion efficiency, and also do not produce as much methane. The reaction of diesel combustion is given by: Carbon dioxide has a molar mass of 44g/mol as it consists of 2 atoms of oxygen (16 g/mol) and 1 atom of carbon (12 g/mol). [156] The bottom half of the population is directly-responsible for less than 20% of energy footprints and consume less than the top 5% in terms of trade-corrected energy. Definition of measurement boundaries: Emissions can be attributed geographically, to the area where they were emitted (the territory principle) or by the activity principle to the territory that produced the emissions. Overall, greenhouse gas emissions fell 9% from 2019 to 2020, largely as a result of COVID-19-related lockdowns, which limited the use of motor vehicles (and in turn greatly reduced the emission of GHGs in vehicle exhaust). Methane is released into the atmosphere by both natural sources (35-50%) such as wetlands and by human activities (50-65%). Time horizon of different gases: The contribution of given greenhouse gas is reported as a CO, The measurement protocol itself: This may be via direct measurement or estimation. 2020 U.S. GHG Emissions by Sector Transportation - 27% Electricity - 25% Industry - 24% Agriculture - 11% Commercial - 7% Residential - 6% 2020 U.S. Transportation Sector GHG Emissions by Source Light-Duty Vehicles - 57% Medium- and Heavy-Duty Trucks - 26% Aircraft - 8% Other - 5% Rail - 2% Ships and Boats - 2% Therefore, in order for Earth to emit as much energy as is absorbed, global temperatures must increase. This has led to atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide that are unprecedented in at least the last 800,000 years. FAO (2014). The rise in energy-related CO 2 emissions pushed overall greenhouse gas emissions from energy to their highest ever level in 2021. Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. At a global level, emissions from land use and forestry have remained relatively consistent over the past two centuries. Solutions exist to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of water and sanitation services. M / Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change. (carbon dioxide) It is not a greenhouse gas but a climate forcing agent. / However, changes in land use can be important: estimates indicate that net global greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, forestry, and other land use were over 8 billion metric tons of CO2 equivalent,[2] or about 24% of total global greenhouse gas emissions. Despite increases in renewable energy, a report . [163]:15 When these numbers are calculated per capita cumulative emissions based on then-current population the situation is shown even more clearly. [157] However, wealthy individuals are also often shareholders and typically have more influence[158] and, especially in the case of billionaires, may also direct lobbying efforts, direct financial decisions, and/or control companies: Greenhouse gas intensity is a ratio between greenhouse gas emissions and another metric, e.g., gross domestic product (GDP) or energy use. [200] This corresponds to over 10.1 tonnes CO2eq emitted per person each year, slightly over the world average and the EU average but significantly lower than the second largest emitter of greenhouse gases, the United States, with its 17.6 tonnes per person. See the 2019 IPCC report for newer data. These countries have a long history of CO2 emissions (see the section on Cumulative and historical emissions). ", "Production of methane and ethylene from plastics in the environment", "Study Finds New Reason to Ban Plastic: It Emits Methane in the Sun", "Sweeping New Report on Global Environmental Impact of Plastics Reveals Severe Damage to Climate", "Data Centres and Data Transmission Networks Analysis", "The computer chip industry has a dirty climate secret", "Working from home is erasing carbon emissions -- but for how long? Note that diesel is a mixture of different molecules. [232] In April 2020, NOx emissions fell by up to 30%. [19]:106107, While cities are sometimes considered to be disproportionate contributors to emissions, per-capita emissions tend to be lower for cities than the averages in their countries. [238][239], Sources and amounts of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere from human activities, This article is about emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. ", "IPCC: Climate Change 2022, Mitigation of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers", "By 2030, Cut Per Capita Emission to Global Average: India to G20", "Environmental issues: essential primary sources", "Climate change: global deal reached to limit use of hydrofluorocarbons", "Climate change: 'Monumental' deal to cut HFCs, fastest growing greenhouse gases", "Nations, Fighting Powerful Refrigerant That Warms Planet, Reach Landmark Deal", "Measuring urban greenhouse gas emissions: The challenge of comparability", "Transcript: The Path Forward: Al Gore on Climate and the Economy", "Analysis: When might the world exceed 1.5C and 2C of global warming? g [11], Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane, three groups of fluorinated gases (sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs)) are the major anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and are regulated under the Paris Agreement. MT = Metric megatons The rankings above change when we account for the population of each country (ie, per capita emissions), or when we change the timeframe. Most is carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels: coal, oil, and natural gas. Previous research found that the linear term of fiscal decentralization promotes carbon emissions, while the non-linear term mitigates it. g Nitrous oxide most of it produced by soil microbes when crops are overfertilizedis responsible for close to 8 percent of the increase. [28] Natural sources of carbon dioxide are more than 20 times greater than sources due to human activity,[29] but over periods longer than a few years natural sources are closely balanced by natural sinks, mainly photosynthesis of carbon compounds by plants and marine plankton. [163]:1718[173] This can be calculated by dividing a country's highest contribution to global warming starting from a particular base year, by that country's minimum contribution to global warming starting from a particular base year. Since 1970, CO 2 emissions have increased by about 90%, with emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes contributing about 78% of the total greenhouse gas emissions increase from 1970 to 2011. In 2018 research claimed that some of the most common plastics in the environment release the greenhouse gases methane and ethylene when exposed to sunlight in an amount that can affect the earth climate.[121][122]. Since 1970, CO 2 emissions have increased by about 90%, with emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes contributing about 78% of the total greenhouse gas emissions increase from 1970 to 2011. Since 1970, global carbon dioxide emissions have increased by 90%, with emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes contributing to about 78% of the total greenhouse gas emissions increase. = [1] N2O has a high GWP and significant Ozone Depleting Potential. [228]:3. Thus emissions arising from energy production may be categorized according to where they are emitted, or where the resulting energy is consumed. In 2019 a new report "Plastic and Climate" was published. This list needs updating, as it uses an out-of-date source. Almost half of the increase in absolute global emissions has been caused by the richest 10% of the population. Strengthening fiscal decentralization, lowering non-renewable energy prices,[clarification needed] and improving institutional quality to check the deteriorating environmental quality in the study sample and other worldwide regions can reduce carbon emissions.[222]. Emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases have also increased significantly since 1900. America's greenhouse gas emissions from energy and industry increased 1.3 percent in 2022, continuing to rebound from an abrupt pandemic decline in 2020 but not quite reaching prepandemic levels, according to preliminary estimates published Tuesday by the Rhodium Group, a nonpartisan research firm.. (89 pp, 3.5 MB) Climate, Energy and Tenure Division, FAO. "The 660 MW plant should be considered as an outlier, as transportation for the dam construction elements is assumed to occur over thousands of kilometers (which is only representative of a very small share of hydropower projects globally). [210], Climate change mitigation is action to limit climate change by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases or removing those gases from the atmosphere. However, when that heat attempts to rise and dissipate, it cannot penetrate the gases/glass and instead builds up, raising the ambient temperature. rose to their highest recorded levels of consumption in 2021. The 360 MW plant should be considered as the most representative, with fossil greenhouse gas emissions ranging from 6.1 to 11 g CO. Olivier J.G.J. [44] It launched in 2021 before COP26,[45] and improves monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of both carbon dioxide and methane.[46][47]. For the United States, during the period from 1990 to 2020 (see Figure 1): harvnb error: no target: CITEREFIPCC_AR5_WG32014 (. Since 1990, gross U.S. greenhouse gas emissions have decreased by 7%. [61] For the chemical formula of diesel we use as an approximation CnH2n. Low-energy buildings are designed to be highly efficient with low total energy consumption and carbon emissionsa popular type is the passive house. [107], Over a quarter of global transport CO2 emissions are from road freight,[108] so many countries are further restricting truck CO2 emissions to help limit climate change. Overall, developed countries accounted for 83.8% of industrial CO2 emissions over this time period, and 67.8% of total CO2 emissions. Cattle (raised for both beef and milk, as well as for inedible outputs like manure and draft power) are the animal species responsible for the most emissions, representing about 65% of the livestock sectors emissions. 1990 was used in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as the base year for emissions, and is also used in the Kyoto Protocol (some gases are also measured from the year 1995). [22]:370 Per capita emissions may be based on historical or annual emissions. [163]:1718 Within the G8 group of countries, it is most significant for the UK, France and Germany. [example needed] Besides, increasing energy prices for non-renewable energy decrease carbon emission due to a substitution effect. {\displaystyle 22\ \mathrm {g} {\text{ (gasoline)}}/\mathrm {MJ} \cdot {\frac {6\cdot 12}{6\cdot 12+14\cdot 1}}\cdot {\frac {44}{12}}=67.5\ \mathrm {g} {\text{ (carbon dioxide)}}/\mathrm {MJ} }, GHG emissions 2019 by gas typewithout land-use changeusing 100 year GWPTotal: 51.8 GtCO2e[63]:4. Iran is rich in resources with enormous oil and gas reserves; however, it still has considerable potential to produce renewable energy, such as solar power. [84], Agriculture contributes towards climate change through greenhouse gas emissions and by the conversion of non-agricultural land such as forests into agricultural land. Fluorinated gases include hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). We look at this in detail here. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses Ch7 from "Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change". 44 Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Emissions by Sources and Removals by Sinks (PDF), IPCC (2014): Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. It is also part of the natural nitrogen cycle. In 1997, human-caused Indonesian peat fires were estimated to have released between 13% and 40% of the average annual global carbon emissions caused by the burning of fossil fuels. 12 In 2014, the top carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters were China, the United States, the European Union, India, the Russian Federation, and Japan. Total U.S. anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 were 5.8 percent below the 2008 total ().The decline in total emissionsfrom 6,983 million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO 2 e) in 2008 to 6,576 MMTCO 2 e in 2009was the largest since emissions have been tracked over the 1990-2009 time frame. [clarification needed] It verified the inverted U-shaped curve between fiscal decentralization and carbon emissions. The burning of natural gas and oil are the two leading contributors to Irans carbon emissions. A study shows annual carbon emissions (or carbon loss) from tropical deforestation have doubled during the last two decades and continue to increase. [40], A 2017 survey of corporations responsible for global emissions found that 100 companies were responsible for 71% of global direct and indirect emissions, and that state-owned companies were responsible for 59% of their emissions. [131] Proof-of-work blockchains such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, and Monero were estimated to have added between 3 million and 15 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere in the period from 1 January 2016 to 30 June 2017. Developing countries accounted for industrial CO2 emissions of 16.2% over this time period, and 32.2% of total CO2 emissions. This is a list of sovereign states and territories by carbon dioxide emissions due to certain forms of human activity, based on the EDGAR database created by European . [132] By the end of 2021, Bitcoin was estimated to produce 65.4 million tonnes of CO2, as much as Greece,[133] and consume between 91 and 177 terawatt-hours annually. Non-OECD countries accounted for 42% of cumulative energy-related CO2 emissions between 1890 and 2007. 6 In this section Energy (electricity, heat and transport): 73.2% Direct Industrial Processes: 5.2% Waste: 3.2% Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use: 18.4% To prevent severe climate change we need to rapidly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. A lock (LockA locked padlock) or https:// means youve safely connected to the .gov website. Japan is the fifth-largest contributor of greenhouse gases and the fifth and final nation that contributes more than a thousand (1,056) megatons per year. Oil and gas production is Canadas largest emitting sector, accounting for about 45% of emissions, followed by transportation, which accounts for about 28% of emissions. They pose no hindrance to sunlight, which passes straight through and generates heat when it reaches the ground. [80] Although much less polluting than coal plants, natural gas-fired power plants are also major emitters,[81] taking electricity generation as a whole over 25% in 2018. land use change (mainly deforestation in the tropics) accounts for about a quarter of total anthropogenic GHG emissions. [211] Cutting greenhouse gas emissions, and therefore air pollution in India, would have health benefits worth 4 to 5 times the cost, which would be the most cost-effective in the world. In 2020 data centers (excluding cryptocurrency mining) and data transmission each used about 1% of world electricity. The sharp acceleration in CO2 emissions since 2000 to more than a 3% increase per year (more than 2ppm per year) from 1.1% per year during the 1990s is attributable to the lapse of formerly declining trends in carbon intensity of both developing and developed nations. [236][237] The hindrance of environmental policy efforts, combined with economic slowdown may have contributed to slowed investment in green energy technologies. The government will announce the new goal as the country's nationally determined . U.S. households generate 5.43 gigatons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions every year. [83] In the 2022 IPCC report, it is noted that providing modern energy services universally would only increase greenhouse gas emissions by a few percent at most. [7], Global greenhouse gas emissions are about 50 Gt per year[8] (6.6t per person[9]) and for 2019 have been estimated at 57 Gt CO2 eq including 5 Gt due to land use change. JavaScript appears to be disabled on this computer. Overall, greenhouse gas emissions fell 9% from 2019 to 2020, largely as a result of COVID-19-related lockdowns, which limited the use of motor vehicles (and in turn greatly reduced the emission of GHGs in vehicle exhaust). The main sources of greenhouse gases due to human activity are: The major sources of Greenhouse gases (GHG) are: The seven sources of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion are (with percentage contributions for 20002004):[36], This list needs updating, as it uses an out-of-date source. [216]:2239 The recent rise in global average temperature is mostly caused by emissions from fossil fuels burning (coal, oil, and natural gas). [4] Each year, about 6.7 million people die from polluted air quality.[5]. Transportation, Industry, Agriculture, and Land Use and Forestry are four global emission sectors that roughly correspond to the U.S. sectors. In 2016, negotiators from over 170 nations meeting at the summit of the United Nations Environment Programme reached a legally binding accord to phase out hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) in the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol. [113], In 2019, the building sector was responsible for 12 GtCO2-eq emissions. [12]:146,149 A country's emissions may also be reported as a proportion of global emissions for a particular year. (Diesel) J The country has pledged a 33-35% reduction in its emissions by 2030 compared to 2005 levels. It emitted primarily through the burning of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, oil) either in motor vehicles as fuel or in power plants to generate electricity. Greenhouse gases are a major cause of climate change, and methane is a potent greenhouse gas. Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture contribute with 10.55%, industrial processes and product use with 9.10% and the management of waste with 3.32%. [212], The Paris Agreement commitments included a reduction of this intensity by 3335% by 2030. [225] Policies implemented by governments have included[226][227][228] national and regional targets to reduce emissions, promoting energy efficiency, and support for a renewable energy transition, such as Solar energy, as an effective use of renewable energy because solar uses energy from the sun and does not release pollutants into the air. IPCC (2014): Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. 12 [130], Mining for proof-of-work cryptocurrencies requires enormous amounts of electricity and consequently comes with a large carbon footprint. [178] Emissions in Russia and Ukraine have decreased fastest since 1990 due to economic restructuring in these countries. [41][42], Climate TRACE (Tracking Real-Time Atmospheric Carbon Emissions)[43] is an independent group which monitors and publishes greenhouse gas emissions within weeks. With an atmospheric impact 300 times that of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide is a major greenhouse gas. Indirect heating can be caused by the interaction with clouds. However, early data indicate that GHG emissions not only rose in 2021, but reached the highest global level yet recorded. Architecture 2030", "Global Assessment: Urgent steps must be taken to reduce methane emissions this decade", Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, "Global Carbon Mechanisms: Emerging lessons and implications (CTC748)", "Global emissions to fall for first time during a period of economic growth", "Fossil CO2 emissions of all world countries - 2020 report", "Fast Facts on Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions", "Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data Explorer | US EPA", "Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks", "Report: China emissions exceed all developed nations combined", "Cumulative CO2 emissions globally by country 2018", "The world is still falling short of meeting its climate goals", "Who has contributed most to global CO2 emissions? has a molar mass of about 1 g/mol, so the fraction by weight of carbon in diesel is roughly 12/14. Diesel has an energy content of 42.6 MJ per kg or 23.47 gram of Diesel contain 1 MJ of energy. [174] For example, in the main international treaty on climate change (the UNFCCC), countries report on emissions produced within their borders, e.g., the emissions produced from burning fossil fuels. Manuel Pugal-Vidal, leader of the climate and energy practice at WWF, a partner of the report said, "Governments must introduce national targets to reach net-zero emissions by 2050 with targets to cut emissions 50% by 2030. [198][199] When measuring in consumption-based terms, which adds emissions associated with imported goods and extracts those associated with exported goods, China accounts for 13 gigatonnes (Gt) or 25% of global emissions. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. According to the International Energy Agency, global carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion reached a new record of 36.3 billion tons (36.3 Gt) in 2021. China was responsible for most of global growth in emissions during this period. Carbon dioxide is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of the Earth's carbon cycle (the natural circulation of carbon among the atmosphere, oceans, soil, plants, and animals). It is primarily released through agricultural soil management practices (74%) such as the application of fertilizer. [209] The country emits 7% of global emissions. The four main methods are the emission factor-based method, mass balance method, predictive. The terms "carbon intensity" and "emissions intensity" are also sometimes used. According to the report, the production and incineration of plastics will contribute in the equivalent of 850million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere in 2019. Black carbon is formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel, and biomass. [30] The largest single source is coal-fired power stations, with 20% of GHG as of 2021.[31]. Today, we collectively emit around 50 billion tonnes of CO 2 e each year. The cited paper uses the term "start date" instead of "base year.". Between 1990 and 2018, Irans CO emissions rose by roughly 5% annually. low informed concern about climate change. One way of attributing greenhouse gas emissions is to measure the embedded emissions (also referred to as "embodied emissions") of goods that are being consumed. [36] In comparison, methane has not increased appreciably, and N2O by 0.25% y1. Capacity Building for National GHG Inventories. If emissions are attributed at the point of production, then electricity generators contribute about 25% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The global print and paper industry accounts for about 1% of global carbon dioxide emissions. the top 10% consume 56% of vehicle fuel and conduct 70% of vehicle purchases. This change has an impact on the environment, human health and the economy. In 2020, carbon dioxide emissions fell by 6.4% or 2.3 billion tonnes globally. The transportation sector was the largest contributor to emissions in 2020, responsible for 27% of emissions, followed by electricity (25%), and industry (24%). [19]:93 For instance, concentrating on more recent changes in carbon sinks is likely to favour those regions that have deforested earlier, e.g., Europe. India is responsible for 6.84 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions, according to recent Financial Times analysis, with 80 percent of its electricity generated by fossil fuels. [164]:17980 Over this time period, the US accounted for 28% of emissions; the EU, 23%; Japan, 4%; other OECD countries 5%; Russia, 11%; China, 9%; India, 3%; and the rest of the world, 18%. [112] Green building practices that avoid emissions or capture the carbon already present in the environment, allow for reduced footprint of the construction industry, for example, use of hempcrete, cellulose fiber insulation, and landscaping. [162] The United States is the second-largest contributor of CO emissions, responsible for 4,745 megatons of GHGs in 2019. Therefore, the importance of the water-energy-carbon . Bitcoin is the least energy-efficient cryptocurrency, using 707.6 kilowatt-hours of electricity per transaction. Emissions ticked up even as renewable energy surpassed coal power nationwide for the first . 1. Most countries developing adaptation plans or Nationally Determined Contributions will commission scenario studies in order to better understand the decisions available to them. ", Global Energy System based on 100% Renewable Energy Power, Heat, Transport and Desalination Sectors, "4. Ruminant cattle for beef and dairy rank high in greenhouse-gas emissions; monogastric, or pigs and poultry-related foods, are low. More than 95% of these emissions were carbon, and the remaining 5% were CH4 N2O and halocarbon. Data from IEA . Figure 1: Total greenhouse gas emissions (including international aviation, excluding LULUCF) trend, EU, 1990-2020 (Index 1990 = 100) [125] Greenhouse gas emissions from the pulp and paper industry are generated from the combustion of fossil fuels required for raw material production and transportation, wastewater treatment facilities, purchased power, paper transportation, printed product transportation, disposal and recycling. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (CH 4), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and ozone (O 3).Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be about 18 C (0 . M According to a 2020 report by Oxfam and the Stockholm Environment Institute,[151][152] the richest 1% of the global population have caused twice as much carbon emissions as the poorest 50% over the 25 years from 1990 to 2015. There are substantial uncertainties in the measurement of net carbon emissions. The size of the global meat industry is such that the animals' collective flatulence and biological waste releases a considerable amount of methane into the atmosphere. In 2020, U.S. greenhouse gas emissions decreased 11% compared to 2019 levels. Agricultural soils emit nitrous oxide partly due to fertilizers. Agriculture, deforestation, and other land-use changes have been the second-largest contributors. This is a list of countries by total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per capita by year. [92] Farm animal digestive systems can be put into two categories: monogastric and ruminant. [117] The EPA estimates[118] as many as five mass units of carbon dioxide are emitted for each mass unit of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) producedthe type of plastic most commonly used for beverage bottles,[119] the transportation produce greenhouse gases also. [148], Studies find that the most affluent citizens of the world are responsible for most environmental impacts, and robust action by them is necessary for prospects of moving towards safer environmental conditions.[149][150]. burning of fossil fuels and deforestation leading to higher carbon dioxide concentrations in the air. ", "Beyond the Energy Techlash: The Real Climate Impacts of Information Technology", "Bitcoin mining is worse for the environment now since China banned it", "Bill Gates Sounds Alarm On Bitcoin's Energy ConsumptionHere's Why Crypto Is Bad For Climate Change", "Bitcoin Uses More Electricity Than Many Countries. Global greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to different sectors of the economy. Countries and regions listed in Annex I of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (i.e., the OECD and former planned economies of the Soviet Union) are required to submit periodic assessments to the UNFCCC of actions they are taking to address climate change. Governments have taken action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to mitigate climate change. Using different base years for measuring emissions has an effect on estimates of national contributions to global warming. jt fowler dancer, baxter fluid warming guidelines, 11 % compared to 2019 levels an out-of-date source and biomass the Fifth Report! Partly due to a substitution effect global level, emissions from Land use and are! Updating, as it uses an out-of-date source new York, NY USA. And  emissions intensity '' and  emissions intensity '' are also sometimes.. Also be reported as a proportion of global emissions the United States is the least energy-efficient,! 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